Foreign Languages in Higher Education <p>“Foreign Languages in Higher Education” is an open-access, double-blind peer-reviewed journal for research in the broad areas of linguistics and foreign literature, as well as methods of teaching foreign languages published by Yerevan State University (Armenia). It welcomes contributions from all subdisciplines of linguistics (theoretical and applied) and literary studies (literary theory and literary criticism). It also provides a forum for cross-linguistic/cross-cultural and interdisciplinary research in the areas of linguistics, literature, cultural studies, and multimodal communication. We publish 2 issues per year; research papers can be submitted all year long. For information about the manuscript format and the review process, please go to section <em>For Authors</em>.</p> en-US (Yerznkyan Y. L.) Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 «EL NECIO BIEN AFORTUNADO» DE SALAS BARBADILLO. RASGOS GENÉRICOS <p>El presente artículo, tal como reza el título, examina los rasgos genéricos de «El necio bien afortunado» del ingenioso escritor áureo Alonso Jerónimo de Salas Barbadillo. Tras un análisis detallado se revela que en muchas obras de Salas Barbadillo, en general, y en la novela «El necio bien afortunado», en particular, se mezclan con singular maestría los elementos picarescos y cortesanos originando un mundo híbrido de compuestos.</p> Armine MANUKYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Armine MANUKYAN Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE CLASH BETWEEN CAROL MILFORD AND THE SOCIETY IN THE NOVEL “MAIN STREET” BY SINCLAIR LEWIS <p>The paper studies the novel “Main Street” by Sinclair Lewis, a great American novelist of the 20th century, a prominent representative of critical realism. It studies the serious conflict between the heroine, Carol Milford and the society surrounding her. Both the essence of the struggle of the heroes and the inevitability of her defense are presented convincingly and with examples. Struggling alone against overall stupidity and ignorance Carol Milford eventually understands that she can’t realize her dream – to make yet one provincial town better.</p> Narine ZAKARYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Նարինե ԶԱՔԱՐՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EASTERN LAYER OF THE POEM “ABU-LALA MAHARI” BY AVETIK ISAHAKYAN <p>The aim of the present paper is to explore the connection of the poem “Abu-Lala Mahari” by Avetik Isahakyan with the East. The paper focuses on words and expressions of Arabic origin used by the author to describe the eastern spirit. With his picturesque descriptions Avetik Isahakyan creates a unique roundelay of the eastern concepts and images. The descriptions of the caravan of camels and the desert are worth mentioning.</p> Tatevik HARUTYUNYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Տաթևիկ ՀԱՐՈՒԹՅՈՒՆՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE PECULIARITY OF THE APPROACH TO THE ISSUE OF WAR IN K. VONNEGUT’S NOVEL “SLAUGHTERHOUSE - FIVE, OR, THE CHILDREN’S CRUSADE” <p>The present paper is an attempt to discuss some peculiarities of an approach to the issue of war in K. Vonnegut’s ‘Slaughterhouse - Five, or the Children’s Crusade’. The description of the war itself is not of primary importance as compared to the suppression of individuality under totalitarian ideology. For K. Vonnegut and his contemporaries the world is absurd and is excluded from human ‘I’ and the novel itself is the sarcastic reflection of the idea. The author considers it impossible to give a comprehensible picture of the war the way it is impossible to find logic in absurdity and he actually tries to explain the reader why it is impossible to write about war. K. Vonnegut believes that war is not the way to restore justice as it never existed.</p> Anna PAPOYAN, Irina BURNAZYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Աննա ՊԱՊՈՅԱՆ, Իրինա ԲՈՒՌՆԱԶՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 FEATURES AND UNIQUE MANIFESTATIONS OF IMAGE OF “MOTHER” IN WORLD LITERATURE <p>Since ancient times the image of “mother” has occupied the central role in literature. Every society created its own hero attributing her unique features. Daniel Defoe, a representative of English realism, created an “indifferent mother”, French romantic Victor Hugo created an image of a sacrificial mother, and Nar Dos created Sarah and Shushan, who committed the worst of the sins – the infanticide.</p> Anna PETROSYAN, Astghik SOGHOYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Աննա ՊԵՏՐՈՍՅԱՆ, Աստղիկ ՍՈՂՈՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PHILOSOPHICAL AND ESTHETIC CONCEPTS OF MIGUEL DE UNAMUNO <p>This paper presents the philosophical and esthetic Weltanschauung of the Spanish writer and existential philosopher Miguel de Unamuno. As a master of classical prose, on the one hand, he continues the tradition of philosophical prose, on the other hand, he tries to create new principles of philosophical novel – Nivola.</p> Ruzanna PETROSYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Ռուզաննա ՊԵՏՐՈՍՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF LOUIS-FERDINAND CELINE'S NOVEL “JOURNEY TO THE END OF THE NIGHT” AND ITS RENDERING IN THE ARMENIAN LANGUAGE <p>The 20th-century distinguished writer L.F. Celine’s novel “The Journey to the End of the Night” gave rise to two opposing views among literary critics. Nevertheless, L.F. Celine’s and Marcel Proust’s names (though radically different) appear side by side being considered the 20th-century French literature titans. The translator faces serious difficulties while translating Celine’s linguistic devices, dialects and neologisms.</p> Nvard VARDANYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Նվարդ ՎԱՐԴԱՆՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 LA SUBJECTIVITÉ LINGUISTIQUE DANS L’ACCEPTION DE CATHERINE KERBRAT-ORECCHIONI <p>La théorie de l’énonciation occupe une place importante dans les recherches linguistiques contemporaines. Dans le cadre de ces recherches beaucoup de travaux sont consacrés à la subjectivité linguistique. L’un des travaux importants sur la subjectivité dans le langage est «L’énonciation: de la subjectivité dans le langage» de Catherine Kerbrat-Orecchioni où elle aborde les problèmes de l’énonciation, propose une grille permettant de repérer tous les indices de la subjectivité dans le discours, ensuite une classification sémantique de la subjectivité dans le lexique dans le cadre de laquelle elle oppose aux lexèmes objectifs les lexèmes comportant des subjectivèmes particuliers, associés à des échelles de valeurs propres à chaque locuteur. Dans cet article on présente les idées principales de Kerbrat-Orecchioni sur la subjectivité dans le langage.</p> Armine KIRAKOSYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Arminé KIRAKOSSIAN Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF GREETING AND SMILING GESTURES IN COMMUNICATION <p>Effective communication is the combined harmony of verbal and nonverbal actions. Gestures and spoken language often go hand in hand. Usually a part of the meaning is expressed by a certain gesture. The meaning of a gesture has some variations depending on the strength of the handshake, its duration, a smile accompanied by other facial expressions such as eye movements, jaw-drop, the tense mouth which are accurately reflecting what’s going on inside the speaker.</p> Jemma TER-GRIGORYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Jemma TER-GRIGORYAN Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 LEXICAL AND LEXICO-SEMANTIC CONNECTIONS OF PARENTHETICAL CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE MAIN SENTENCE <p>The semantic and grammatical connection of parenthetical constructions with the main sentence finds its manifestation in special lexical and lexico-semantic means which unite the main sentence with parenthetical constructions. The lexical means of connection are the expressive means of connection which are external and easily perceived. They are the characteristic features of parenthetical constructions as well. Lexical and lexico-semantic means of connection constitute the cases of the uses of lexical units for the expression of the dependence of constructions.</p> Marine YAGHUBYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Marine YAGHUBYAN Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THE USE OF THE PRESENT INDICATIVE IN MODERN ARMENIAN AND SPANISH <p>The present paper seeks to study the characteristic features of the use of the Present Indicative in modern Armenian and Spanish. The study of these characteristic features cannot only aid the Spanish language instruction, but can also encourage the reader to study the characteristic features of the Armenian language and perceive its structural aspects. It is worth mentioning that the use of the Present Indicative both in modern Armenian and Spanish correlate.</p> Anna AZROYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Աննա ԱԶՐՈՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS WITH A NOUN AS THE HEAD WORD IN ARMENIAN AND ENGLISH <p>Phraseological units play an important role in all languages; they make our speech more impressive and emotional, at the same time contributing to its brevity and conciseness. The aim of the given paper is to study the nominal phraseological units in English and Armenian, particularly the constructions which have a noun component as а head word. The components of the phraseological units are studied from the point of view of their part of speech meaning. The semantic and stylistic peculiarities of the usage of phraseological units are also considered.</p> Sirarpi KARAPETYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Սիրարփի ԿԱՐԱՊԵՏՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE PROBLEMS OF POLYSEMY, VARIANCE AND SYNONYMY OF THE SYSTEMS OF THE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS WITH THE COMPONENTS “GOD” AND “DEVIL” <p>The present paper is devoted to the study of polysemy, synonymy and variance of phraseological units with the components “god” and “devil” in Spanish and Armenian. The aim of the paper is to reveal the differences between the above mentioned linguistic phenomena, based on the contrastive-comparative analysis.</p> Anna KUBANYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Աննա ԿՈՒԲԱՆՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE ROLE OF HEDGES IN THE SPEECH OF WOMEN AND MEN <p>Studies on gender and language show that men and women speak in different ways, that is, they prefer different linguistic means to express their thoughts. The aim of the paper is to explore the language differences between the representatives of the two sexes with special reference to the role of hedges in male and female speech.</p> Nona HARUTYUNYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Նոնա ՀԱՐՈՒԹՅՈՒՆՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE PROBLEM OF INTERPENETRATION OF ARGUMENTATIVE AND PERSUASIVE DISCOURSES IN ONLINE ELECTRONIC PETITION <p>The aim of the present paper is to study the discursive-communicative peculiarities of persuasive and argumentative discourses and to examine the interconnection of these two types of discourses in one of the modern manifestations of electronic discourses, namely, in online el. petition. An attempt is made to illustrate the fact that in some speech situations, the above-mentioned types of discourses can interpenetrate, depending on the communicative purpose and conditions, which contributes greatly to the effective realization of the persuasive intent.</p> Siranush GHALTAKHCHYAN Copyright (c) 2015 Author(s) Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 PECULIARITIES OF THE PROCESS OF ARGUMENTATION IN ONLINE ELECTRONIC PETITION <p>Тhe aim of the paper is to study the peculiarities of the process of argumentation and the formation of arguments in online el. petition, which is much dependent upon the specific speech situation, the importance and the actuality of the topic being discussed. The argumentative discourse in online el. petition includes all the arguments introduced by the addresser, where the settlement of the presented attitude/ position and the conclusive evidence of its truthfulness come to the fore.</p> Siranush GHALTAKHCHYAN Copyright (c) 2015 Author(s) Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE <p>The subject matter of the present paper is the peculiarities of the journalistic discourse. To describe the journalistic discourse first of all means to define its efficiency in terms of effectiveness, optimality and its normative nature. The newspaper discourse can be characterized by summarizing the factual and invariable features typical of it.<br />The most significant characteristic of the newspaper discourse is the category of the information field, under which the information continuum is understood covering various spheres of facts and events of the real world.</p> Anna MELKONYAN Copyright (c) 2015 Author(s) Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 THE FUNCTIONAL AND SEMANTIC PECULIARITIES OF ENGLISH NOUN PHRASES <p>The paper deals with the functional characteristics of English noun phrases, namely those of N + N and N + of + N types. The components of these phrases are morphologically unmarked, therefore the functional differences between them can be revealed on the semantic level. Each of the phrases under study can be attributive and appositive, hence these phrases are viewed in the context of syntactical polysemy and homonymy.</p> Naira MKRYAN Copyright (c) 2015 Author(s) Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 UNDERSTANDING IN THE CONTEXT OF COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS <p>The paper touches upon the phenomenon of understanding in the context of cognitive linguistics. On the example of verbs of understanding it is shown that, similar to other abstract concepts, understanding is embodied and based upon physical experience. An attempt is made to define the process of understanding by emphasizing one of its aspects. Understanding is presented as a complex of various mental processes regularly following one another.</p> Diana MOVSISYAN Copyright (c) 2015 Author(s) Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 STYLE DIFFERENTIATING ROLE OF STYLISTIC FEATURES OF BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE IN ENGLISH <p>The paper is devoted to the study of stylistic features of business correspondence as a substyle of official business documents for more complete and effective representation of structural-semantic peculiarities of business letters. The paper reveals linguistic units of utmost impact for conveying and emphasising required content. The main trends in the use of linguostylistic devices allow to determine the stylistic features of business letters: formality, clarity, accuracy and expressiveness.</p> Zaruhi VARTAPETIAN Copyright (c) 2015 Author(s) Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0000 SOMATIC PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS EXPRESSING “ANGER” IN ITALIAN AND ARMENIAN <p>The present paper is devoted to the study of somatic phraseological units which express the emotion of anger in Italian and Armenian. Phraseological units with the names of bodyparts constitute a considerable amount in phraseological funds of both languages. The contrastive study of somatic phraseological units is based on metaphoric image underlying the phraseological unit. As a result, some linguocultural similarities and differences have been revealed.</p> Gohar TONOYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Գոհար ՏՈՆՈՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ASYMMETRY OF COMMUNICATIVE AND DISCURSIVE STYLES IN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION <p>The paper deals with the study of discrepancies in the mentality, behaviour, perception of representatives of different socio-cultural communities which often lead to the emergence of what we can call asymmetry of intercultural communication. Special attention is given to the asymmetry of intercultural communication which includes physiological, linguistic, behavioural, psychological and cultural mismatches, as well as discrepancies in frames, concepts and other linguo-mental structures used to describe a given situation, regardless of the particular language.<br>It is well known that intercultural communication briefly is defined as verbal and/or nonverbal interaction between representatives of different linguocultures. Special attention is given to the study of communicative discourse styles forming a national style of verbal and nonverbal communication. The article also discusses important notions (such as concepts, cognitive frames, nonverbal messages, cross-cultural hindrances, etc.), which are of great importance for the study of intercultural communication.</p> Narine HARUTYUNYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Нарине АРУТЮНЯН Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ON SOME RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SPECIALIZED DISCOURSE <p>English specialized discourse plays a crucial role in global communication and its investigation and methodology of teaching is of utmost importance today. The purpose of this article is to show some research and methodological peculiarities of specialized discourse in general and of domain specific English in particular. The study of recent approaches that exist within the sphere of specialized discourse provides the teacher of the mentioned discipline with some clues to coping with common challenges of the domain.</p> Astghik CHUBARYAN , Gayane MURADYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Astghik CHUBARYAN , Gayane MURADYAN Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATING IRANIAN HIGH SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS <p>One of the major problems of language learning in Iran is that most of our language learners do not have any clear knowledge about the culture of the people whose language they learn which leads to some sort of misunderstanding. This reveals the fact that as time passes the intercultural communication between this generation of students and the English language communities will become weaker and weaker in future. Their capacity to express themselves in the foreign language fluently after studying English at high school even for six years is not sufficient to communicate in English. It seems that it is partly due to the textbooks used, and partly to the kinds of instruction, procedures, methods and techniques used for teaching English as a foreign language at high schools.<br>This paper has taken an analytic look at the course objectives and textbooks by careful analyses of the content of high school English textbooks prepared and published by the ministry of education in Iran with special reference to the foreign language culture and comparison of the two cultures.</p> Karo KARAPETYAN, Hossein ASLANABADI Copyright (c) 2022 Karo KARAPETYAN, Hossein ASLANABADI Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPACT OF LEARNING STYLES ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN AN EFL CLASSROOM <p>Each of us has an individual learning style, which means that we learn and process information in different ways. This paper considers two models of learning styles: an integrated construct based on the literature review and our own field study, and the markedly different ‘Kolb Learning Style Inventory’. The former has been developed from various existing models and is specifically related to undergraduate and graduate EFL learning. The latter is discussed with an increased focus on adult EFL learning. The two age groups are compared and contrasted in terms of their learning strengths and weaknesses, as well as their learning preferences. The paper also touches upon the issue of balancing different types of learners in a single classroom.</p> Marina KARAPETYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Marina KARAPETYAN Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE PRAGMATIC ASPECT OF TEACHING TRANSLATION OF SPORT DISCOURSE <p>While translating sport discourse translators overcome difficulties connected with pragmatic interference as they deal with not only national or culturally marked foreign words, sport lacunae but also with “unknown”, “non-adequate” communicative behaviour of those people who directly or indirectly deal with sport. In the present paper the problem of non-equivalence of sport terms and concepts is considered from a pragmatic point of view. Armenian speaking sportsmen, as well as coaches “participate” in sport discourse in an “alien” conceptual sphere. As a result, they have to overcome the manifestations of not only cultural, pragmatic, but also discourse interference in speech.</p> Gevorg BARSEGHYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Գևորգ ԲԱՐՍԵՂՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 METHODOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY AS AN EFFICIENT WAY OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE <p>The paper aims at a brief description to those lingual and psychological problems, the analysis of which is directly related to the efficiency of foreign language teaching from the standpoint of elaboration of methodological typology principles.<br>The diversification of common and differentiating features of linguistic units during the teaching process within the context of interlingual communication and their categorization due to their difficulty of acquisition is considered as a paramount methodological issue.</p> Gohar HOVSEPYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Գոհար ՀՈՎՍԵՓՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 TEACHING ENGLISH MINIMAL GRAMMATICAL UNITS IN THE LIGHT OF MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE METHODOLOGY AND TYPOLOGICAL LINGUISTICS <p>The paper touches upon learning minimal grammatical units of English on the basis of modern methods of teaching languages and typological linguistics. The author proceeds from the fact, that the strategy in the initial stages of assimilation of the mentioned units both by native speakers and as well as the “foreign” learners, is essentially identical. Hence, the modern typological models of minimal grammatical structures in the English language are analysed not only in different language layers but also in the process of teaching. Also, the author reveals the syntactic features of the English structures in relation to Armenian.</p> Alisa MANUKYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Ալիսա ՄԱՆՈՒԿՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 TOP DOWN OR BOTTOM UP? <p>Communication is the main function of language but we must not forget that it will be incomplete if what we say is incomprehensible for the hearer. One of the most important and fundamental skills in language learning is listening, its importance for our daily communication cannot be overestimated. Listening is the most common type of communication, so scientists are trying to find appropriate methods for teaching it. The paper touches upon the two basic methods of foreign language teaching (top-down and bottom-up) and their use in classroom.</p> Eliz VOSKANYAN Copyright (c) 2022 Էլիզ ՈՍԿԱՆՅԱՆ Thu, 10 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000