Author Guidelines

Writing style

Manuscripts submitted to Bulletin of Yerevan University G: Economics must be carefully edited before submission.

Manuscript Structure

The structure of the article is the sequence in which the information is clearly stated. The structure should be in the text of the article. The subtitle and paragraphing of the text of the article is important so that the author(s) can comprehend and express their thoughts, and the reader can master it. A well-structured article has everything sorted out and the text looks attractive to read. The structure of the article works exclusively on the disclosure of the research topic, forming a scientific discourse.

The editorial board of the journal invites authors to use the following order of articles:

  1. Title
  2. Author and affiliation
  3. Abstract
  4. Keywords
  5. Acknowledgements
  6. Introduction
  7. Text (with subtitles)
  8. Tables, Figures (if necessary)
  9. Conclusion and discussion
  10. Endnotes
  11. References

Please supply any personal details of the author (s) separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

The title of the article should correspond to the content of the article and include the clear position of the author(s).

Author and affiliationIn a scientific article, the authors indicate their affiliation with a university or research institution. In a scientific article, the author identifies the University or Institution and its Postal address, Website, Email and ORCID. As part of our commitment to an ethical, transparent, and fair peer review process, Bulletin of Yerevan University G: Economics supports ORCID criteria ( ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized. The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications. If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one (

Abstract is a short first section of the article and includes a short summary of the article and has a clear structure. This section is located after the title of the article and should be no more than 250 words. An abstract will include information about why the research study was done, what the methodology was and something about the findings of the author(s). The abstract is always at the beginning of the article and will either be labeled abstract or will be set apart from the rest of the article by a different font or margins. The abstract should tell you what the research study is about, how the research was done (methodology), who the research sample was, what the authors found and why this is important to the field.

After the abstract of the article, it is necessary to write up to 10 Keywords.

AcknowledgementsAll contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

The introduction is the general context of the research, the purpose and scope of the research, a description of the research methodology and important considerations of the author(s). Articles will start with an introductory section, which may be labeled introduction. This section introduces the research study, the thesis statement and why the research being conducted is important. The purpose of the introduction is to generate interest among readers and persuade them to read the article. Questions to ask while you read: 1) What is the thesis of a scientific article? 2) What are the authors trying to prove or disprove in a scientific article? 3) What are the contributions of the authors to this area of research?

The text is the main value of the article, and the subtitles of the article are of secondary importance. It is important to remember that even the most interesting and useful article will go unnoticed by readers if it is not properly structured with subtitles. It is the subtitles that divide it into thematic blocks, give the user the opportunity to get acquainted with the part that is interesting to him, and facilitate the process of creating content for the author(s). In the text of the article, it is necessary to understand in detail what tasks are solved by subtitles in the text, and it is also necessary to create and use them correctly. Subtitles are the logical ordering and interconnection of sections within an article. They help the reader to search for the necessary information in the article. The task of the main part of the text of the article is to reveal the topic of research, therefore it is advisable to answer those basic questions that might arise from the reader.

The table and figures used in the analysis of the article should be included in the manuscript. Such information is often interesting and authors are encouraged to provide additional information. Whenever possible, tables and figures should not be longer than one page.

The task of the conclusion and discussion of the article is to help the reader to draw a conclusion from your article. The conclusion and discussion section in a scholarly article is where the author(s) talk about what they found in their research study. The conclusion and discussion section is where the author(s) write about what they found and what they think it means. The authors may also draw some conclusions about the research and what significance it has in this section. This section will also tell you what some of the issues were with the research or using a specific population for a research study. For this it is necessary to do the following: 1) Summarize the content and results; 2) Explain how best to use all this information; 3) Give some recommendations and make suggestions; 4) To engage the readers, thereby involve them in the discussion and form the discourse.

The final section is usually called the conclusion or recommendations. Here is where the authors summarize what they found, why they think their research is significant and, if appropriate, make recommendations about future actions or future research that needs to be conducted. In some cases, the conclusion is part of the discussion section.

At the end of a scholarly article, you will find a list of the works cited by the author(s). This list is called a reference list, works cited or bibliography (see Common Reference Formats). In scholarly articles, this list will generally be quite long and include articles, books, and other sources.

List endnotes at the end of your article but before the references. An endnote belongs at the end of a article. Endnotes are included as part of the Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations style (

Notes and References

Here are the general rules:

  1. Bulletin of Yerevan University G: Economics uses the author-date, citation style. References to other works should be placed, within parentheses, at the appropriate locations within the text. Each citation should consist of the author’s last name, followed by the year in which the work appeared in print.
  2. Adjacent or multiple citations should be placed into a single set of parentheses, separated by semicolons and ordered alphabetically within the parentheses.
  3. Authors may use endnotes. They should be as brief as possible, and they should contain supplemental information regarding material presented in the text. Notes should never include tables or figures.
  4. All notes and references should be double-spaced. If the length of notes and/or references is especially long, then the overall length of the manuscript may need to be adjusted.
  5. Notes should be indicated by superscript numerals placed at appropriate locations within the text.
  6. The section heading for the list of works cited should be References. References should not be numbered.
  7. References should contain each author’s full name, as it is given in the publication being cited.

 Common Reference Formats

The JOPS generally follows the Chicago Manual of Style. Here is a cheat sheet by Author-Date: Sample Citations

Author-Date: Sample Citations


Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.

In-text citations

(Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)

(Smith 2016, 315–16)

Chapter or other part of an edited book

In the reference list, include the page range for the chapter or part. In the text, cite specific pages.

Reference list entry

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

In-text citation

(Thoreau 2016, 177–78)

Reference list entry

D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

In-text citation

(D’Agata 2016, 177–78)

For more details, see 15.36 and 15.42 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Translated book

Reference list entry

Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

In-text citation

(Lahiri 2016, 146)


For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or simply omit).

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.

Borel, Brooke. 2016. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ProQuest Ebrary.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Melville, Herman. 1851. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers.

In-text citations

(Austen 2007, chap. 3)

(Borel 2016, 92)

(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10, doc. 19)

(Melville 1851, 627)

Journal article

In the reference list, include the page range for the whole article. In the text, cite specific page numbers. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34.

LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Satterfield, Susan. 2016. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April): 165–76.

In-text citations

(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)

(LaSalle 2017, 95)

(Satterfield 2016, 170)

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the reference list; in the text, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al.

Reference list entry

Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. 2017. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May): 463–73.

In-text citation

(Bay et al. 2017, 465)

For more examples, see 15.46–49 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

News or magazine article

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. In the reference list, it can be helpful to repeat the year with sources that are cited also by month and day. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in the text but are omitted from a reference list entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017.

Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017.

Pegoraro, Rob. 2007. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.

In-text citation

(Manjoo 2017)

(Mead 2017, 43)

(Pai 2017)

(Pegoraro 2007)

In-text citation

(Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)

For more examples, see 15.49 (newspapers and magazines) and 15.51 (blogs) in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Book review

Reference list entry

Kakutani, Michiko. 2016. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.

In-text citation

(Kakutani 2016)


Reference list entry

Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25.

In-text citation

(Stamper 2017)

Thesis or dissertation

Reference list entry

Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.

In-text citation

(Rutz 2013, 99–100)

Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51.

Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017.

Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017.

In-text citations

(Bouman 2016)

(Google 2017)

(Yale University, n.d.)

For more examples, see 15.50–52 in The Chicago Manual of Style. For multimedia, including live performances, see 15.57.

Social media content

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). If a more formal citation is needed, a reference list entry may be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.


Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016.

In-text citations

(Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

(Souza 2016)

(Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.

In-text citation

(Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)